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Early in 1995, after much controversy, public debate and a 70-year absence, gray wolves were re-introduced into Yellowstone National Park and central Idaho.  For instance, the coyote population (as well as other predator populations) had grown in the absence of competition of the larger gray wolf.  Therefore, C.J. Knickerbocker (in Zill and Cullen, 1997) tells with the re-introduction of the gray wolf, how anticipated changes in both the predator and prey animal populations in the Yellowstone Park ecological system, and the success of the wolf will depend on how it influences and is influenced by other species in the ecosystem.

Reference:  Zill, D.G. and Cullen, M.R., 1997, ‘Differential Equations: With Boundary-Value Problems’, 4th ed, Brooks/Cole.

The construction of the ‘Predator-Prey Elk-Coyote-Wolf’ model is described at .

A Powersim™ Studio representation of the ‘Predator-Prey Elk-Coyote-Wolf’ model is at .